Syrian children are increasingly being conscripted into combat roles and being killed on the battlefield, according to the regional director of Unicef in the Middle East.
Speaking at a briefing held in the run-up to a conference in London in early February on the Syrian humanitarian crisis, Peter Salama said several hundred children had been conscripted last year, and as many as 400 children had been killed, some in combat.
He also said Unicef had been able to identify 47 specific attacks on schools last year, and more than 4,000 assaults of some kind on school property since the Syrian crisis started nearly five years ago.
â€œWe are seeing children killed and maimed in schools and playgrounds by all parties to the conflict,â€ he said.
He said the deeply troubling trend probablyreflected just the tip of an iceberg.
â€œIn the past, children over 16 have been involved in the military in non-combat roles, but we are seeing a very different pattern today,â€ Salama said. â€œIt is one of the most insidious trends in Syria.
â€œThe majority of those children are now under the age of 15, which is a very different pattern to previously. The majority are now in combat roles being used on the front lines, and the majority are forced to join, often abducted. They are being used as uninformed armed checkpoints, and sometimes as forced labour.â€
Salama also said that water was being used as a weapon of war. He said the water supply to the 2.1 million people of Aleppo had been cut 40 times last summer, mostly deliberately, and that the practice had just started again.
Salama said: â€œWe now have 2.8 million children out of school in Syria and surrounding countries. For many children, they have never been in school in the past five years and so for many primary schoolchildren, they have never seen the inside of a schoolroom.
â€œThis is a country that had more than 90% attendance rates before the start of the civil war. Nearly a fifth of children going to school have to cross a front line to get to school to do their exams . Nearly 50,000 teachers have gone missing, and a full quarter of schools â€“ more than 6,000 â€“ are out of action for education either because they have been destroyed, damaged irreparably, used by the military or used for internally displaced people.â€
The crisis is now affecting a whole generation, he said, adding that nearly a third of refugees now reaching Europe are children.
Unicef has 700 staff working on the Syrian crisis, including 200 inside Syria. It is pressing the London conference to call for the lifting of all sieges and a sustained drive to get 3 million children into school. Unicef is seeking Â£806m to fund humanitarian aid in Syria and the surrounding regions. A fifth of the country has now fled, and nearly 4.5 million children are in hard to reach or besieged areas such as Madaya, Fua and Kefraya.